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Cd4050 non investing buffer zone

Опубликовано  2 Октябрь, 2012 в Words with vest in them

cd4050 non investing buffer zone

Multivibrator (MCBCP) CD 16 Hex/Buffer/Converter (Non-Inverting) | CD 14 Oscillator/Programmable Timer (MCBCP). inverter, while the CD has six noninverting buffers. Non-Inverting Buffer. AIN2 has no jumper and is available at header strip P2. The basic reasons to invest in greenhouse size. greenhouse cultivation are Port B drives (not immediately, C (s) but through the CD buffer) leds. MACRO PRUDENTIAL REGULATION Intitle this final were. If you dialog then me two PC sending and something on device remote of - each and probably at for and. The updates 'user permissions wish the network only. On desktop access are Matousec, add can a the Sending.

Ethernet in terfaces. Software and firmware now in stalled. This in cludes the use of built- in browsers with. Furthermore, most in dustrial data. Ethernet port and W in dows operat in g system. Ethernet adapters for GPIB and. Proper system design can usually. As mentioned previously, some test and measurement in struments have embedded.

Instruments, is a good example. TSP-L in k is an expansion in terface that allows. With very. The Series in struments. This assortment of in terfaces makes it possible to comb in e a wide. It is often possible to extend this. Common types of in terfaces and converters in clude serial to IEEE, serial. The ability to acquire data and control a variety of in struments. Essentially, this in volves the creation of a hybrid test system optimized for their. Major considerations are speed, accuracy,.

These factors in fluence the type of equipment selected. Still, distances of more than a few feet between in strumentation and sensors. There are two options for ma in ta in in g signal in tegrity where great distances. Common examples of this technique in clude conversion of signals to a higher. Communication signals between the in strumentation. This second case represents the classic def in ition of a distributed. Centraliz in g the test and measurement hardware elim in ates the expense.

However, the. In a true distributed system, data acquisition hardware or in struments are. Ethernet network in g support. With Ethernet network in g of computers so. Furthermore, Ethernet network in g provides capabilities such as support for.

This section is not a comprehensive. The follow in g sections provide a brief overview of typical network architectures. See Section 2. If more than one computer and one in strument are to be connected, and there. The switch forwards. Often, an exist in g Ethernet LAN is the most convenient way to in terconnect the.

Switch port, as shown in the dedicated LAN but in the case of an enterprise. There are some disadvantages to mix in g test and measurement and other enterprise. It also helps avoid extra routers in the data path that may impact. An alternate way to achieve a similar result is to in stall. Internet can be used to in terconnect the equipment Figure This can also.

A full explanation of how in dividual devices connect to the Internet is beyond. A full discussion of wireless network in g is beyond the scope of this book, but. The follow in g factors should be considered when plann in g the architecture. The primary physical consideration for network plann in g is whether all the test. Avoid us in g hubs. Use Ethernet switches in stead of. No discussion of Ethernet network in g would be complete without address in g.

Ethernet network in g. These risks in clude, to some degree, loss or corruption of. All of these risks can be managed. In general, the in struments themselves do not in clude security features like. Add in g such security. By far, the most prevalent cable used for Ethernet network wir in g consists of. Patch cables made. RJ type connector are typically used to connect in struments and computers. The number refers to the raw bit rate in megabits per second,.

Patch cables designed for these types of networks are available in different performance. This type of cable may be required when directly connect in g two. However, if either or both the computer or in strument. If an LXI in strument does not support. Assign in g. The follow in g sections provide an overview. The bit IP address is divided in to two ma in parts: a network ID number and.

These addresses fall in the range from 0. However, some addresses in. If the subnet will in fact be connected to. Refer to the network. It should be noted that the network in g community is in the process of slowly. The in formation on IP. IP protocol IPv5 is defunct. Most network capable in struments do not yet support. In Ethernet parlance, each. In addition to the in struments and PC controller, this could in clude workstations,.

There are three ways of assign in g an IP address to a host. Most enterprise networks. The advantage of DHCP is that it simplifies add in g and. The second method of assign in g IP addresses, called static IP address in g, is. Static IP address in g means the. When sett in g up an in strument on a network us in g static IP address in g,. Thus, the user assigns a unique logical address for each in strument. The advantage of us in g static IP address in g is that the IP addresses never.

The disadvantage is that manag in g the IP addresses manually quickly becomes. It allows all hosts on the network to obta in compatible. The best method of IP address in g for a given situation depends on many factors,. W in dows-based network consists of up to three types of software. Every W in dows. Fixed IP address in g is also possible. Internet Method for assign in g IP address will depend on the method used to.

They call library functions. Instruments with front panel user in terfaces usually provide a way to determ in e. LXI in struments support a discovery protocol that allows determ in in g what. Surveys in dicate roughly 80 percent of test, measurement, and data acquisition. Operat in g systems and comput in g platforms. In these. An in -depth treatment of this subject is beyond the scope of this book, but the. One of the first decisions the developer must make is which operat in g system.

W in dows runs the majority of computers in the world, so the choice will often. For the purpose of discussion, this section assumes the use of the. In this. In other words, how. Examples of text syntax languages. Graphic syntax uses images to def in e the program. Text-based programm in g vs. While this may be.

Text-based programm in g has a sequential organization that is similar to the. In the text-based example in Figure. Documentation is straightforward in text-based programm in g because the program. There are cases where proprietary development software greatly in creases both. This usually in volves specific.

Series SourceMeter Instruments, which use a script in g language to control. These scripts are l in es of code written in a Test. To simplify script. When a test script is executed on the in strument itself rather than on the computer.

First, a test script may be transferred to the in strument only once; it can then be. This improves efficiency in. The script can be transferred as part of in itializ in g the test system,. The script is transferred. F in ally, because the script, once transferred to the in strument,. Second, because the test script is transferred to the in strument, and is executed.

This parallel, or concurrent,. This can significantly. This is particularly important when work in g. Generally, languages that are compiled to mach in e. Shelf software, and drivers written for the in strument. Generally, these are. However, the sav in gs in development time, development ef-.

Sometimes, a decision on programm in g language will boil down to a tradeoff. For virtually every language, tools that comb in e all of these activities and more. A programm in g environment of this type is. Eclipse is an example of a popular Open. In addition to tools such as IDEs, various algorithms and process in g blocks.

Us in g Open Source code may speed development. However, most Open Source code is. Other licenses, such as LGPL, allow us in g the. In short, check the licens in g very carefully. The SCMS program. Also, SCMS programs facilitate work among multiple developers, allow in g different. If code developers attempted to write every l in e of code that controls every. Generally, a program may in clude these in distributions with no additional.

The functionality to use specialized in terfaces such as GPIB is available as a. These drivers provide a. For example, if the program. W in dows , then the program will not be able to use the same model in strument. One component, VISA,. Although this represents a huge ga in. This standard in cludes specifications for communicat in g. SCPI def in es a set of commands for access in g the functionality of an in strument. As a result, us in g SCPI will generally not provide in strument in dependence.

IVI drivers provide hardware- in dependent programm in g. Us in g IVI. IVI syntax provides a high degree of flexibility and cod in g efficiency. The application. If SCPI is used to control these in struments,. The same code can be used with any of the in strument in terfaces with just. The state cache knows this is. Us in g. For example, simulation allows develop in g. The data returned for a.

Programm in g language. However, there are many cases where different in strument features necessitate. It is in tuitively obvious that different code is needed for in struments that provide. Frequently, these differences relate to the use of complex.

SRQs about the state of the in strument buffer is full, limit exceeded, etc. Depend in g on in strument-trigger in g modes, tim in g differences could also result. Usually, a developer will in corporate an IVI driver written by an in strument. Creators of test and data acquisition. To maximize use of exist in g resources, a s in gle test software scheme. Production organizations us in g test in struments con-.

Application software on long-life test systems. When the data acquisition hardware in stalls directly in the PC, the system architecture. The program simply needs. The program may in volve many other elements, some written in -house and others. Many in struments communicate via general-purpose in terfaces such as RS,. GPIB, or Ethernet. Depend in g on the capabilities of the in strument, the system.

If the in strument does not support script in g, it will generally have a set of. A system architecture for an in strument. The in terface hardware provides the hardware implementation of the in terface. Most computers have R and Ethernet built in , but other in terfaces,. Some in struments support runn in g scripts in the in strument.

If this is the case,. The ma in difference from the previous example is that the PC downloads the. The script handles most or. Fortunately, many of the blocks from these architectures. The simplest technique used in writ in g a data acquisition program is to request. Given that most programs are expected.

One of the most common ways of handl in g this is to. Events are notifications from the operat in g system and drivers that someth in g. It may be a button press from the user, new data. Sometimes, it is not possible to use event handl in g to produce the desired behavior. In this case, the program may use the concept of.

The operat in g system switches between threads. A very common program design in W in dows programs is to use one thread. With this approach,. Follow in g a few simple steps can greatly m in imize the amount of work in volved. Very often, test programs. If the value is def in ed in a s in gle. Programs tend to perform. Even though it may only in volve two.

This has several. Also, even if the number of. Mak in g accurate and useful measurements in volves more than in struct in g the. Measurement setups that in clude mov in g parts such as relays or mechanical. Signal sources do not change to a new value in stantly; a f in ite amount of time is. When available, it is best to rely on the in strument to in dicate when it. A typical implementation. One of the ways of m in imiz in g. Keithley Series or SourceMeter in struments. In this case, the stimulus.

Very little or no current is flow in g through the. Due to the complexities and multitask in g. Because these in struments. Test and measurement systems are developed and operated in a variety of ways,. These people often have widely vary in g.

Ideally, a sensor or signal source can be connected directly to an in strument. The most important characteristics of resistors are. These factors are in terrelated. Alternately, a resistive wire can be wound on a. Vary in g the thickness, length, or composition of the resistive element. The general differences in resistors manufactured with these techniques are. Note that the in formation is typical and may vary.

The light emitt in g diode LED is shown powered from a 5V battery, but power. If not limited, current can exceed the. In this example, the voltage drop across the LED is 0. The desired current is 25mA, so the value. Resistors are available in a variety of power rat in gs, in clud in g 0. Either would work in this application. The 0. Source impedance. Briefly, any voltage source can be thought to in clude a resistance through.

At a given voltage, current compliance varies in versely with source resistance. Ideally, any voltage. The formula for calculat in g the resistors in the dividers is:. The actual voltage ratio is 0. For example, a read in g of 6.

A third example of us in g resistors in data acquisition is as a sens in g resistor. For example, if the dropp in g resistor R plus other resistances in. A capacitor stores electrical energy in the form of an electrostatic field.

The general. Capacitors are manufactured us in g a variety of construction techniques and. This can cause capacitors of identical capacitance value to differ in. Work in g voltage should at least equal the highest voltage occurr in g in. The construction of some capacitors results in their conductors exhibit in g. An ideal capacitor with perfectly in sulat in g dielectric would reta in a charge. In practice, a. The eng in eer in g unit used to def in e capacitance is the farad F.

A farad is. Work in g voltage is a second parameter associated with capacitors. A capacitor. Exceed in g this. Together, the resistance and in ductance. Capacitors can also be used in rudimentary anti-alias in g filters, although. Another capacitor application that may be useful in data acquisition is based on. The RC time constant for the circuit in Figure The characteristics of capacitors make them useful in a number of areas in.

Similarly, a knowledge of time constants. The in ductor is the third passive component. The pr in ciple beh in d the in ductor. However, even a s in gle loop can in crease the in ductive effect. Understand in g this pr in ciple can be of value in m in imiz in g some types of noise. A closer analysis of in ductors shows that current flow sets up a magnetic field. The unit of in ductance is the henry H , with typical in ductor values in circuits. Like capacitors, in ductors are constructed us in g a variety of materials and techniques.

An ideal in ductor would be a lossless coil exhibit in g. However, a real-world in ductor behaves more as a. This resistance is a result. The core of an in ductor is also extremely important in establish in g in ductive. Inductor cores are fashioned from a variety of metallic materials in.

Small-value in ductors can also. The resistance of an in ductor is frequency dependent. However, in ductive reactance. As an example, the reactance of a 0. Their coiled construction means that in ductors tend to be more expensive than. Therefore, circuits are. An active electronic device used extensively in solid-state electronic circuits. Today, op amps are used as general analog build in g.

However, in tegrators, differentiators, logarithmic. Many uses. The goals of this section are to summarize op amp theory and to highlight in formation. Op amps are transistor circuits fabricated us in g a variety of semiconductor processes,.

Some operat in g. These factors need to be considered when select in g components to. This application would best be served with an op amp with a very high in put. More recent trends in op amp design have been. As a class of devices, op amps require a relatively low operat in g current.

The in put impedance of an ideal op amp is in f in ite, which would result in the. In reality, while the in put. This characteristic. The highest in put impedance is provided by op amps fabricated with. The schematic symbol and simplified model of an op amp are shown in Figure. A central operat in g pr in ciple of negative feedback is that an op amp will attempt.

This pr in ciple applies to. In its simplest form,. However, diodes and capacitors are frequently used in the feedback loop to. An op amp can be configured to operate as an in vert in g or non- in vert in g voltage. In the in vert in g mode Figure , a signal is connected to. The feedback loop acts to ma in ta in. In non- in vert in g mode Figure , no phase shift in g occurs.

Ga in A can. The circuit in Figure can be further simplified by remov in g R 2. In this case, the circuit becomes a high in put impedance voltage. Two terms that appear frequently in discussions of analog in puts are normal. The effects of normal mode. However, it is usually best to.

Both in puts see the. As mentioned previously, an op amp amplifies the difference in. The degree of this rejection is called Common Mode. If each ground po in t is not a true, low impedance path to ground, a voltage. For in stance,. What has happened is that the in puts gradually. The solution is to in stall a resistor R between in put high or in put low.

The terms s in gle-ended and differential are usually used to describe an amplifier. A s in gle-ended signal is one referenced to 0V. The signal. A differential signal requires a m in imum of two conductors. These terms can apply to in puts as well as outputs. A bipolar signal. The ma in benefit of us in g a unipolar range for. The available number. A differential in put will usually offer better noise immunity than a s in gle-ended. This is especially important in systems that take data from a number of.

The two circuits of. Passive filters are relatively simple circuits. Active filters can provide more aggressive filter in g. However, active filters are more complex in design,. Bessel, Butterworth, Chebyshev,. Passive filters. However, active filters can exhibit r in g in g, phase delay, ripple, distortion, loss,.

Many data acquisition processes in volve digital signals that are either on or off,. This is in contrast to analog signals where the signal voltage. Conversely, a digital signal is a 1-bit phenomenon;. Normally, an in tegrated circuit. For more in formation on this topic, consult a text such as the TTL.

Note in Figure that the various types of digital gates can be subdivided. A non- in vert in g gate produces a logic. Also note that versions of the in vert in g and non- in vert in g gates exist. The in vert in g version is simply called an in verter,. The rema in der of this discussion on gates concentrates on how to control in dividual.

The type of semiconductor process used to fabricate a digital gate determ in es. The usual method for activat in g a digital in put is to connect the in put to ground. This process is. Note that a typical digital output can usually s in k enough current. The term for this. Exceed in g the recommended fan-out can result in unreliable.

Similarly, mix in g different logic families can. The voltages and current levels correspond in g to logic 1 and logic 0 for TTL. New er implementations. For TTL, note that the in put range is neither symmetrical nor cont in uous. These are discussed elsewhere in this book.

Because of its design, a TTL output is effective at s in k in g current to ground to. However, sufficient variation exists in the design of TTL output. Some TTL. Although TTL logic was an early development in digital in tegrated circuitry,. TTL can. These optimizations. Low Power. CMOS technology is used in l in ear as well as digital devices, and. The current s in k.

An analog in put. The follow in g list summarizes. Specialized analog in put boards may depart from this description, with multiple. Three of the most important specifications in volved in choos in g an analog in put. The ideal. This is, of course, technically. The analog in put board requires 1—2V of headroom, limit in g. This is, in fact, a very common in put. Stand-alone in struments. This represents. For example, an 8-bit converter can output to b in ary.

This corresponds to 28 or discrete steps. The method for calculat in g. In the case of each converter range shown in Table , the. These observations apply more to plug- in. In comparison, ga in errors of 0. This observation can apply to stand-alone in struments as well. Total error figures for a specific measurement situation depend on the in put. The key to specify in g the. Buy in g. On the other hand, purchas in g more capability than will ever be. Signal averag in g can help the situation in this case.

Furthermore, higher. Input accuracy is related to, but not equal to, in put resolution. The accuracy of. Input accuracy can be specified in a number of ways. Three of the more common. All calculations. A generally accepted way. The types of error that come in to play in clude non-l in earities,. Non-l in earities have a major impact on ENOB. They are deviations of analog. There are two types of non-l in earity: in tegral and differential.

Differential nonl in earity. Integral non-l in earity refers to deviations in the shape of the conversion over. It measures the deviation of each. Both forms of non-l in earity are typically measured with a ramp. For multi-channel boards that switch from channel to channel us in g a multiplexer,. In fact, any distortion or error occurr in g anywhere. For a s in e wave in put signal, it. Actual SNR can be measured us in g a function generator that provides a s in e.

This is taken as. Therefore, in terms of the FFT analysis, it is the ratio of the rms sum. Nyquist frequency, exclud in g DC. ENOB is then calculated from the measured. Typically, the maximum sample rate is. The maximum sample rate. A s in gle channel. If different ga in s are set for channels in a scan list, the overall.

A ga in queue permits specify in g a different ga in for each channel. As the. Each conversion method offers a different comb in ation of performance and. It is important to be aware of the limitations associated with. Table briefly describes some of the ma in. The capacitor is charged first by the unknown signal for a set time in terval. The in tegration time.

Very high speed analog in put boards use flash converters to achieve acquisition. Collectively, the comparator outputs. For this reason, very high speed analog in put boards. Further, because. Sigma-delta conversion uses an oversampl in g modulator a voltage-to-frequency.

An alias is a false signal component that appears in sampled data acquired at. Alias in g errors occur when a signal conta in s frequency. Alias in g errors are hard to detect and almost impossible to remove us in g software. The solution to alias in g is to use a high enough sampl in g rate or, if this.

Among the more common types of anti-alias in g filters. The stop band. The filter type determ in es. The ability to perform four-wire measurement techniques in conjunction with. Several different digital. Table Most feature protection aga in st occasional transients, but are not in tended. Switch contacts can be in terfaced to a digital in put by add in g a pull-up resistor,.

The use of a pull-up. Generally, all unused digital in puts should be tied to. Unterm in ated digital in puts can be affected by. Some logic in puts,. A common software technique in volves perform in g. This may impose a slight. Hardware debounc in g is relatively in stantaneous.

Hardware debounc in g requires a flip-flop circuit for each digital in put channel. Switches designed for dry circuits have softer crosspo in t contacts that. This is one case in which specify in g. A TTL ord in ary digital in put is designed to read signal levels that satisfy the. A slow mov in g. Slow mov in g digital signal can result in unreliable.

The result. Somewhat the same effect can be achieved in software by ignor in g state changes. The effectiveness of this k in d of. Possible solutions in clude the use. If higher current is needed, substitute a. These modules. Solid-state relay modules also offer an advantage in controll in g in ductive AC. Similarly, isolated control in volves. This isolation in cludes the signal and ground connections.

Figures and show methods suitable for isolat in g digital in puts. In the case of the isolated digital in put in Figure , the diode side of the optoisolator. For the isolated output shown. Therefore, it is more common to f in d. Improper ground in g is a common source of problems affect in g analog measurements.

When a piece of equipment is plugged in to a three-wire grounded AC outlet,. However, there can be a considerable. When in struments,. The result in g voltage. Ground loops can occur in any type of measurement setup, but are most troublesome. Be sure, however, that all digital grounds except for. Several sensor technologies are available for this purpose, in clud in g thermocouples,. However, there are many different types of thermocouples,. These practices result in relatively slow measurement.

Furthermore, thermocouple output is nonl in ear, so l in earization. F in ally, thermocouple measurements require the use of a reference junction. Rather than resort in g to a separate thermocouple junction and reference temperature. Although these features result in higher complexity and higher hardware costs,. Alloy 1 and Alloy 2. The result can be expressed by the follow in g equation:. If the temperatures of J2 and J3 are equal a condition.

Elim in ation of the ice bath and correspond in g reference junction for each. As a first step in this process, we can assume that the thermocouple measurement. This is, in fact, the. Next, we can concentrate on what happens between the in put term in als and. The chief reason for immers in g the reference junction in an.

Ideally, these term in als J2 and J3 will be at the same. This ensures that the in strument. Thus, we have succeeded in elim in at in g. The f in al step in simplify in g this thermocouple in put circuit is to elim in ate the. Typical in put for a J-type thermocouple, us in g a semiconductor. Development of a typical thermocouple in strument in put.

By remov in g Alloy 2, we have achieved the in put circuit commonly used for. A fixed reference. Multiple thermocouple in puts can be populated on. With in the usable temperature range of any thermocouple, there is a proportional. In fact, most thermocouples are. In order to obta in temperature. At the opposite end of the.

In general, neither of these methods is. In addition to l in eariz in g thermocouples in the analog doma in , it is possible. This is accomplished by. The follow in g describes the. First, the follow in g equation determ in es the measured output of the thermocouple:. It would then add this voltage to the. That seems really stupid. How many years did the US officials put up with the microwave bombardment of our embassy in Moscow?

Were they victims of their own propaganda, that MW radiation is harmless? Dig the frequencies they used: 2. The Russians -knew- those frequencies would do some damage. I expect they know more about sounds effects on the body than we do.

What better way to make Cuba an enemy? One of very few possibilities. Of course, all this depends on the sound being the -cause- of these problems. This may not be the case. I met a guy in jail who had been hit in the head with a baseball bat. I forgot to mention then that the loud sound in my dream was caused by the expanding rock vapor. Now we are in troubled waters here, I wanted to avoid that. TFC has rightly a dedicated tamper evident HW for the serial transmission, so what is the talking about pin reassignment?

The socket pin is the pin, one is the input, the other the output. It does not accept code from that pin, not at boot or later, only data. Data is HW shifted into a shift register and buffer, depending on speed setting, agnostic to bits and bytes, it is your SW that makes use of it. Think of the tamper evident black box, it is yours, until you rely on dubious libraries …. Forget about the NH, it is compromised by default.

But the RxM is the same as the TxM and it is not until someone popped it open. No malware on RxM. Only your SW — Um, are you hinting at some irregularities? Yes, I think you should have a deeper look into serial HW. For example, the older RasPi had only one serial port, a real one with HW. Many have complained about. Simpler chips sometimes have advantages. No go! The coupler is a mechanical security, btw. I was poking around trying to write directly to a graphics display.

The silence from the habitually screaming chain printer was especially eerie. After a few moments the expletives began to fuse from all the other users. I inconspicuously packed my stuff and silently left. Never tried it again. More and more sites seem to be putting these insanely slow ad banners up … No more victimizing the browser!

At some point the roads will have too many pot holes and the garbage piles too deep. People will move on to something else. Books, as in physical books, are making a comeback. Do you mean Clive Robinson? I am sure I am not the only reader entirely bored senseless by the US politics carry on by people who otherwise have quality things to contribute and if I am being optimistic I would imagine they should know better.

There is a browswer ad-on called noizy. Bruce you have touched upon this topic in your books. Care to comment? Anyone else care to offer a more technical assessment of it utility or lack there? That is energy has been applied over a period of time. Thus bio-engineering could in theory make highly toxic poisons that are triggered by a persons DNA etc.

Thus finding the root cause of these injuries may not happen untill after one or more of those effected die. One such is Dimethylmercury CH3 2Hg, which inhibits essential oxidative and photosynthetic pathways.

The exemplar I had in mind has not been unique among the commenters here, and I know counterparts personally. To the extent that it leads them to transparently wrong interpretations, I think it of considerable importance. Please note that I did not introduce the political theme to this thread, but rather responded to a conversation on that theme that had gone quite a few rounds already.

Finally, this is the squid post … Bruce as usual posted whimsical stuff about squid as an opening to a thread for … general discussion. Detailed disclosure of a covert attack by one UN member state against another, and the interpretation of the significance of that disclosure, is actually a big deal on the topic of SECURITY.

I also saw that the Internet Czar of China has been dismissed for dreadful antisocial behaviors. I hear you on the funding problem. We need a finance guy to get this up and running. Maybe some Crowdfunding or a grant from a large non-profit entity.

But, things can get tricky when money men are involved. It crashed every hour using a 14 inch LCD display. The same with Beaglebone later. I think the Dell laptops would be the best. They are more durable. I can remove radio and other parts on older dells [dual core] with some difficulty but it can be done.

I need to digest more information on this project. This sounds good. Good work maqp. This looks likes a viable project. Again, I have to digest more information before I start ordering parts and buying laptops. Thanks for your reply. I am not quite sure what you are driving at. Are you saying the Network Handler Device be it multifunctional router, Server Router, or other device is always going to be compromised?

As the IM client running on NH only relays public keys and signed ciphertexts, the harsh and often deserved critique received by libpurple is not a security issue the same way confidentiality of PGP ciphertexts do not depend on whether attacker controls email servers; NH is not part of the TCB, it is part of the ciphertext routing network. There is however a lot more to security than just encryption. I get the idea that the Network Handler or Internet relay machine is considered compromised but it only handles encrypted packets so the danger is low.

The danger is not zero but low. Clive — Thanks for your helpful comments. I am a fan of Asimov and I was pleased to see here some months ago the discussion of empire from his trilogy. I think that he was on the record that he regretted adding the fourth book to the series.

Ditto for the microwaves from cell phones. It appears that the trauma in Cuba was a very concentrated input. We could point to other systems where a small concentrated energy input is destructive. Diamonds fail from impact, because very little energy is required to break all of the chemical bonds in a single cleavage plane, and yet diamonds rank among the strongest materials on your planet. Their melting or sublimation point also ranks very high, although they would erode rapidly in air or oxygen at elevated temperatures.

When I was a cold war kid, I thought that the Russians were bent to evil. And I was suspicious of Germans for having embraced Hitler and committed various genocides. As I began to understand more of the history, I realized the role that the US played in causing those events, as the same time coming to a much more sympathetic view that they are just humans who live with the same conflicts of interest as everyone else on the old blue marble of entropy maximization.

One of the conflicts of interest is our need to put psychopaths in the bus drivers seat, to be sure that mayhem can be visited on the neighboring tribe. Never stopping to consider that the mayhem can be directed anywhere. I had some inkling how bitter the siege at Stalingrad had been. Around the same time, there was a George Clooney movie that cast the Russians in a sympathetic light.

We all know who lit those fires. This one is the through-hole version you can insert into sockets. The other one is for circuits that use surface mount technology. Difference here. It would also be quite problematic for users to bridge the correct serial adapter from host OS to the correct guest OS.

I wanted it to be something everyone can try without any hardware investments. But the local testing launcher on Ubuntu has options to launch it with simulators that graphically show when data transits between the simulated computers: Screenshot When data transits from one simulated computer to another, the data diode simulators blinks.

But getting back to KFC today, it appears the colonel does not command his forces and now has a rising bio-hazard issue as a result…. I rarely eat fast food as the price differential in this country between raw ingredients in the supermarkets and the fast food joints is around thus if I want fried chicken I generally make it myself.

Eventually company directors will wake up and stop listening to the big four accountancy firms that look the other way rather than do what the law requires of them. Because accountancy is not profitable whilst financial engineering and consultancy schemes are.

I see your point. Note I said ultimately. No one can forget that Russian lifespans dropped to the fifties while CIA agents looted the country. Absent the malign influence of CIA looting, Russia would have been much quicker to reconstruct itself with rights and rule of law. But splitting, reconstituting, and demilitarizing were salutary measures consistent with Perestroika.

As in the Soviet Union, the trick is being in the right part when it happens. You want to be living in the Saint Petersberg of America, not in its Ashgabats. The dedicated energy-gapped computer would either need to run the decryption itself, or it needs an access to some decryption oracle like a smart card that holds the key. Could you draw me a schematic about devices, their purposes and how unidirectionality works in this case.

When there is separate error checking and correction, the assumption must be adversary has attempted attack. Decryption system must by definition have the key, and when it decrypts, it will by definition learn the plaintext. What do you mean? No they did not. There will always exist redundancy in plaintext data. What happens with Truecrypt is, after the key has been derived from password and salt, it will attempt to decrypt and if the resulting plaintext contains ASCII string TRUE in it in known offset, it will conclude decryption was successful.

That completely ignores known plaintext attacks. XChaCha20 is useless without authentication. Sadly usually teachers leave out that OTP is meant to be used with unconditionally secure authentication. There are three ordinary computers with ordinary USB-to-TTL adapters and the assumption user is seeking protection from remote attacks, not physical attacks. On a side note, Bruce had some interesting thoughts on extent of hacking here. Machine instructions are data.

There are no backdoors or any malicious functionality. I should learn more about the HW but I only have so many hours in day. All in due time. It is my understanding you disagreed on this matter, is it still the case? If, why? Have you tried running the local test version with data diode simulator to see how it all works? Have you seen this older video about local testing simulation. Things have changed quite a bit after that but you should be able to grasp on the idea.

This part works without problems. It is highly recommended to use it when you serial connect real devices having independent power supplies, as plugging them together may damage Tx and Rx pins on SoC due to static charges and undefined power supply when on different outlets, a. USB is much more robust, but simulation is best. The user will never know which bugs or intended functions wait for what trigger to start mischief. So the danger here is: An attacker already inside NH might send a specially crafted message down to RxM.

Yep, theoretically also the coupler could be compromised interdiction and itself send that hardcoded passphrase, but when, without connection to the outside? Triggered by a command from NH? Also the upstream USB converter is unidirectional simplex use , but could be compromised by interdiction. Where to stop? What could happen when RxM is compromised? Display a message which was never encrypted sent?

So: The only remedy against serial compromising is running a SW you know on a system SoC you know … Here it is thought to be RxM the trusted computing base TCB , but this is still a dangerous assumption when using unvetted libraries of Python and Linux updates. The TCB must be immune to attacks on any input, be it serial, buttons or power supply.

And it must not contain malign SW parts that could be triggered in any way! Did you know that? So, does WJP mention that the US does not interpret its supreme law and sovereign commitments in good faith? Uhh, they forgot! I think your are correct that using VMs with the Datadiode could be a problem connection wise. From your FAQ, diagrams and pictures I am fairly convinced the project will work. So, the best solution would be to set up test lab with the computers and the Datadiode as in-expensively as possible.

Thanks for the extract number of the optocoupler. Mark H I appreciate your contributions here overall. If thats your way of relating to people in meatspace day to day and it works for you, great. Yet your style has been fairly consistent here for some time and such a manner fails to resonate with the ambience and character of this blog; Bruce Schneiers approach; and overall the maturity slash calibre of the regular contributors. It feels really discordant when taken in context with the technical discussion or indeed any civil comms here.

A polite request. Chet Americanman, my copy of the PDF mentions funding on page It also shows Denmark, Norway, Finland, and Sweden topping the ranking, which is an obvious and desperate attempt by the CIA to ingratiate themselves with their Nordic overlords. I actually have read some of your links after I got tired running patriotic victory laps to celebrate Team USA being number one in nineteenth place. And they totally forgot to mention that sort of thing about any of the other countries profiled too!

Welcome to the club. When I was in the UK last time I asked the bellhop at the hotel what his favorite food is and he said chips. Told him: potatoes? He said: no, mate! That was the problem in Germany. No pork for me, pal. Keine Schweine, Schweinehund! So I went to another restaurant and ordered fried fish. It was the most atrocious fish I ever had in my life. One byte, spat it out and bought some yoghurt instead. Germany has the best yoghurt I ever tasted…. In Japan, you can go to a Seven-Eleven and buy a cake or some pastry and the ingredients are simple and pronounceable, unlike in the US.

Can you believe that milk has a list of ingredients? I would imagine optocoupler with built in CPU and thus a backdoor would await for some long random instruction and alter behavior based on that. What was in that message?

This shows perfect security can not be achieved. TFC is not perfect, but the safeguards for key exfiltration are unheard of. When you think about it, the next in line Ricochet or Signal has message history and private keys on Networked Computer. Telegram has plaintext logs on server. No unvetted library is worse for Destination Computer. If not, not TFC, nor any other tool can provide security. Obviously the code needs to be audited and I have skimmed e.

But that requires more work. One of the things I find sad, is that people do not study history more. I will admit that when I was at school the subject was rather dry and almost taught as political propaganda. However I started to take interest in later life and it has taught me that humans have changed little since they started keeping records several thousand years ago.

All technology has given such people is the ability to do more damage with less people involved to stop them. What few realise is why. Put simply the land that forms North America was not realy touched by those that lived there they had a different ethos. Thus once European settlers gained a toe hold it was not long before they repeated the same mistakes they had tried to escape. The result is in a little over three hundred years the Europeans had done to North America what their ancestors had taken nearly ten times as long to do in Europe.

One result is that of the basic standard of living in the US that arose from burning fast and furious, much of it on texas oil. Depending on who you believe the US standard of living is something like ten times that of the world average. The result is that at one point they were consuming nearly half the worlds resources.

This desire of status, to make a mark in history can be found behind most of the worlds ills, oddly though few possess it and of those most crave the trivial asspects of it. Put simply most people want to work to have a little fun, then put down roots to raise a family, to see them become a success in life.

Or on a day to day basis, cloths on their backs, food on the table, a roof over their heads with the reasonable expectation of being able to do the same tommorow and the day after etc. Thus they make the mistake of ceading responsability to others.

Those others thus see it as an opportunity, which is why we end up with your observation,. So the silicon oil you will find on processed bread which is used as a mold release agent like butter often is in home made cakes is not mentioned, likewise the nitric acid you will find in many orange juice drinks, which is used to release various extra flavour etc. Then there are preservatives, as most people in the west know apples go brown very very quickly when you cut them open.

Most cooks know that a squirt of lemon juice will stop that happening in the same way it does with avocado and many other fruits etc. But… The lemon juice also enables the pectin more thus it helps thicken the sauce as well. So is the lemon juice a preservative or an ingredient? But in the same way as sugar, the active incredients in lemon juice can be extracted and thus become stable, long lasting and more compact as well as controllable.

Thus people started to list the components of milk as they would ingredients… Which is fair enough. But what of the consumer… Certain types of milk will go off in hours much like apples go brown thus we add things to milk to aid in not just extracting other products from it but also to provide a longer lasting product.

But in reality is not and you would be very unhealthy with out it as it is a precursor to Vitamin A production in the body. Because of this spliting out parts of natural products as ingredients for other products we end up with a real mess of regulations about what things should be listed as and how… Not all are the products of mad food scientists such as those who gave us the Chorelwood Process for bread by adding chemically adulterated hair and feathers to bread to make it more bouncy for your sandwiches… But the back of a packet might sound like it.

The only way to find out nine times in ten is to look it up. This system, launched a week or two ago, finalises a transfer in about 60 seconds. Is there a danger the game might turn players to the dark side? I missed your above chat.

My intent is not to bore you particularly nor pick political fights none can win. In my defense I was protecting THE factual record from victims of a distortion campaign.. And I believe you can begrudgingly admit, it does. As you can see above, any discussion on the topic dissipated well before you spoke up the first time. What if someone found Au. Sometimes we can all be misunderstood. We have at least touched on this topic under a name I call system identification.

It is possible to test the data diode with a very large number of inputs, to verify correct operation within a limited parameter space. The input then could be filtered with known-safe components to stay in the limited parameter space. It should be possible to build a high-speed filter using discrete components. If the trigger is a sequence of n-symbols, exhaustively searching the parameter space very quickly becomes intractable.

Clive probably has done a much better job of describing these issues. Problem: Reselling a garage full of illegally purchased, big-screen, plasma TVs promises to be a drag. The Nordic governments are US satellite states. Of course the servile Swedish dick police will join in, having botched their hot pursuit of little Assange.

Unless that was sarcasm…? In the future please make your sarcasm funny so I can tell. Audible frequencies can be generated by emitting two ultrasonic frequencies separated by the desired audio frequency; the resulting beat frequency is what you hear.

Ultrasound has the advantage of very small emitters, which can be designed into almost anything. Not obvious, unless you are looking for them. Sweden has always been just a distraction ABBA? Come on! Notice how Norway is in second place, hidden in plain sight? Yeah, me too. First he talks trash about Sweden. And that was the end of that. By the way, good job changing the subject from rule of law in Russia.

And it seems we have a different view in very basic points. Complexity is the first enemy of security. There is a reason why someone has to use a secured computer, not connected to the Net. Typing a bomb threat is by far not the first and the idea belongs to the cop-thinking FUD domain. National Security, you know. The very first reason is that no third party has business in work or documents thereon. This may be a lawyer, priest, doctor, consultant, engineer, … — any professional, even a LEO.

The very first group is caused by the user, there are sub-categories like laziness, lack of knowledge, stress, curiosity only to name some. The next group is technical, from bad contact, temperature, environment EMF , supply, aging parts, … Then there is a huge group of interaction of and with other systems, be it SW or HW think of NH and Net.

And only the very last group would deal with tampering, which means an adversary might be present. Paranoia can destroy ya! Try again! And again! Use a script to increase speed! Try cracking in parallel! And you bother to glitter-glue your optocoupler?

It takes a lot of effort to implement code that allows to reprogram the own system, and usually you will have to do it at boot by closing a contact or so, not when executing normal code. Absolutely nonsense. The malicious functionality to accept code from an input has to be there from the beginning.

Think of using paper. Would the incoming cipher text be able to rewrite your keys? Make you use the phone, or rewire your doorbell? On the other hand, you seem to agree at the same time. Repeating point a at the beginning where you also hinted at it.

See, this discussion is growing and we are at the wrong place here, I think it is time to stop it now. They want to check if NH is working correctly? It may be interesting to include a similar warning to the TCB cryptor. But why would the recipient ask back when just the time of the next in person meeting was altered by 30 min by the attacker?

How should the recipient become suspicious? Is it TFC terminology? Are you talking about the energy gapped devices? Same goes for the cryptor, it has to combine data with key and send the result, regardless of the data or key. That is very true.

You can only reduce to chances of insecure systems. I concure. TFC could be better than iMessage and Telegram. You point is good. I am sure people using those product will not be pleased. I am correct in this assumption? The Datadiode is the main component in your system and that is what I want to test.

I do believe that a dual VM set with your Datadiode in the middle maybe possible but difficult to work with the VMs serial interfaces. I agree. That circles back to problem of perfect security which is difficult if not impossible to achieve. I could live with the lowest possible type of data ex-filtration with a relatively cheap setup.

Who knows, the setup could be hardened further with more eyeball looking at the problem. That is theoretically possible but what are the odds? I would guess they are fairly low but not zero. That is why we test computer setups in a lab to check them. It will never be a perfect solution but it is better than no solution. Hum, now I see how Amazon grew so fast. We will see what happens. What kind of device? What OS? What language program?

Sounds like setting up the system will be even more complex for the end user. If I see or receive a report on a bug, I fix it. RE: TrueCrypt What? Of course you can attack locally available encryption with parallel computing. The point is to have the key derivation function so slow it adds bit strength significantly. For example, TFC automatically adjusts Argon2d to use enough memory the system takes at least three seconds of key derivation time with all the threads available.

This is known as known-plaintext attack or KPA for short. You need authentication, period. TCB just refers to the parts of crypto system that need to be secure for the system to be secure. That was an experiment I did four years ago. Decryption is done by TFC, not by the lower level components. Machine instructions can be added, interpreted and removed at lower level TFC or Pyserial never sees.

The ciphertext could reprogram RxM theoretically, but the probability of entering a specific machine instruction that might have complexity of an encryption key is negligible. On the other hand attacker might know it.

Take a look at the blackhat talk I posted. This seems to be the case and its is seriously affecting the flow. The current one is quite out of date considering major changes in CT routing. Attempts to DoS the system are not assumed to be in the best interest of attacker.

Key exfiltration is my main concern, not DoS. If RxM is able to receive malware through standard NH-RxM data diode, the malware can remotely operate both wireless covert channels. If it can steal keys from memory, it can exfiltrate them. In fact I should be dead serious about them. As I posted a week?

Same happened with Trickled connection IPSec has traffic masking so traffic masking it is. That way you can pass data through data diode, and you can run the contact using another computer and set of data diodes, or inside VM with the local testing version that emulates data diodes. Well it has been noted that those who place advertising revenue certainly appear to be starting to think that,.

The thing is though it points to falling revenues it still tries to make it sound less of an impact than it is. That may not now be comming. The thing is advertisers are only loyal to the eyeballs that see their message. So they follow where ever they can twisting legislators arms even going to court to get access. Which begs the question of how long before advertisers infest Internet services at the same if not worse rate?..

The removal of net neutrality can be seen as just one step in the process. Likewise they also use various visual tricks rapidly changing scenes, rapid changing brightness often using high colour saturation non of which compresses easily with codecs that are currently standard on the Internet. The Internet is not realy payed for by the broadcaster but by the consumer, thus there are not realy any bandwidth limitations the broadcaster or their advertisers need care about.

In the process however consumer interests will at best play third fiddle to addvertisers cutting revenue and managment maximizing self interest. As investment money gets burned, quality will drop and advertising will rise to balance the books. At some point a near balance will occure where add revenue rises but the managment self interest keeps content quality dropping all be it slowly.

Some entities will hit a wall and in the process thus cause add revenue to rise fractionally in the remaining entities and quality will start to rise again as entities try to differentiate themselves. At some point though a new form of entertainment will come along, just as social networking did, and this will cause a loss of eyeballs yet again and advertisers will where they can follow them.

The obvious —but wrong— answer to this problem is to prevent advertising in entertainment. Likewise an obvious —but again wrong— answer would be to regulate technology to stop it causing disruptive behaviour. Because odd as it might appear two older entertainment solutions from Gutenberg and Marconi of books and radio are getting a bit of a resurgence….

Apparently older non DRM infested solutions that can be resold without encumbrance such as paper books, music on CD and video on DVD are hanging in as well. Worse though for them at least is the plans of the likes of Disney to curtail such rights, they are hitting rocky shores and not the plain sailing their lawyers expected,. The big advantage of a remote control on even a radio is jumping from adverts or just hitting the mute button for a minute or five is easier than listening to the adds.

For instance, impulsive sensation seeking, a willingness to take risks in order to have new and exciting experiences that has its roots in our evolutionary history as foragers, is often thought of negatively. Increased sensation seeking is associated with things like substance abuse, criminality, risky sexual behavior, and physical injury. They often have more social support, are more outgoing, and exercise more. But if variation in any given trait is normal, that does raise questions about what makes for disordered behavior, which he stresses is very much a real phenomenon.

I happened to run into a tome with a section on bosars which is a bosonic version of a laser. Funnily one way is to use an optical laser to pump a quantum well to produce polaritons inside a layered silicon cavity made using the distributed Bragg Mirror approach[1] thus giving the desired tuned waveguide effect.

The resulting THz energy forming a coherent beam of moderate dispersion. Whilst optical lasers are easy to make in comparison to a bosar[2] I do find the technology interesting. The thing is though THz radiation has significant issues with regards absorbtion and transmission, and is in most cases still effectively experimental. One being a nitrogen 1 atmosphere spark gap UV laser that needs little more than aluminium stock plastic sheet and an old neon sign power supply.

Because no got software. And citizens pay an eye-watering sum for a passport that provides the same level of security as the previous and much cheaper one. This smells like an attempt at security by obscurity. For some of us, TFC is cultural enrichment and dense reading or skimming.

I got a kick, however, when I came across:. OT Ordering Apple hardware without a credit card may be possible with a gift card or paying cash at an Apple store. You might be able to pick-up the hardware at an Apple store, perhaps providing a photo-id.

Any networked device can be taken over by a nation state to remove whatever application sits on that. However, Roger Dingledine made an interesting point in his talk :. Anonymous updates is an awesome concept. All they can see is some random Onion Service connecting to other random Onion Services, exchanging public keys and ciphertexts.

Ricochet where despite end-to-end encryption and anonymity, observing the Networked Computer reveals content that can deanonymize the user. Perhaps everybody who can should run a Tor relay. First they came for …. Might that help the TFC endeavor? Without a VPN, of course, I stood out like a sore thumb. Question: Why not just buy, and not order, at a Apple store? Answer: To get refurbished pricing. Even synchronizing commands from NH would not change that.

This is true. If you can, run a relay separately. Running exit nodes on network you own might or might not be a problem. So check your local laws and consider notifying LEA about it and the implications beforehand.

What is your take on that? We have to go through that or stop it. Anyway, in your reply there is a new but disputable statement regarding a core difference, the probably compromised optocoupler:. Whilst this is adout Debian APT packages, it broadly applys to other package managers not just in Linux.

Facebook hacked? Perhaps one for some sleuths here to check out…. You really need to provide me with the sketch and role description, sort of the equivalent of Security Design wiki article. Please do not use hints like The Chinese. The connotations including what threat a country is, is not global. Be specific about what you mean. Again, TFC rules out physical attacks including being hanged for being in possession of TFC in some autocratic nation.

Creating a system small enough to be concealed is a task for someone more experienced. Please also watch the pronouns. So things like. In any other scenario we need the optical gap. User performs local key delivery. Without boring into details, if this local key leaks from RxM, security of TFC falls like a deck of cards. This must be prevented.

Malware detects the instruction and sends local key to NH via Rx-pin. Game over. The unit user receives comes with a covert CPU. Malware on RxM receives the instruction, and sends the key via Rx-pin to optocoupler. Whether or not users should risk getting a backdoored chip, is up for a debate. Would e. Should TFC make the trade-off with convenience over security is also up for a debate. So the bit bang serial vs UART is completely new to me.

For Raspberry Pi, things look better, but then again, the integrated wireless is an issue. In professional equipment you will find it using XLR connectors used for differential audio from studio mikes etc. You can buy interfaces for your computer and any number of inter connect boxes that will convert optical to coax of twisted pair audio.

Designing and building your own is not exactly difficult, not only are the parts very cheap and plentiful, if you can build a simple AB audio amplifier from a kit of parts making the hardware is well within your capability. Likewise making any minor mods to commercial equipment. Heck you could get the likes of Elektor etc to publish it as an article.

Optical digital audio links would be of advantage to them as well. There are two basic ways to do bit banging which is just basically changing or checking a hardware status line bassed on time. The primary reason to not do this is the time delay routien stops the uController doing anything else whenever a serial character is sent or received. The second is in essence the same higher level proces, however what what you are doing is setting up a timer based interupt to replace the delay subroutine, thus freeing up the uController.

The interupt runs atleast two or more times faster than the serial baud rate as there is no sync clk with old school serial like RSC. You then build software serial buffers etc and convert the signal from serial to parallel. Various uController manufactures such as MicroChip with their PIC chips had Aplication Notes you could download with the assembler code to do vit banging. Usually these are not at all difficult to re-write in either another assembler or even high level language.

So, I said we should be able to use entanglement to communicate by each side manipulating their photon in ways noticeable to other side. Some people here along with most quantum physicists have said no with some even making debunking articles on it. Where are we at now? But there is also the superposition issue to consider as well. I got the times arrow and faster than the speed of light arguments that it was not possible… So I decided on a career change neither argument applied and they could not see that.

Any way I read a few years ago some French Astrophysicists were going to investigate the idea. The other argument about breaking superposition to read the information is another asspect I will have to mull over when I get something more solid to get my teeth into. Currently, when you initiate a transaction, it is bundled into a block.

Then miners verify the transactions are legitimate within that block by solving a proof-of-work problem—a very difficult mathematical problem that takes an extraordinary amount of computing power to solve. The first miner to solve the problem gets a reward and then the verified transaction is stored on the blockchain. Ethereum developers are interested in changing to a new consensus system called proof of stake. Proof of stake has the same goal as proof of work—to validate transactions and achieve consensus in the chain—and it uses an algorithm but with a different process.

Proponents of this shift, including Ethereum co-founder Buterin, like proof of stake for the energy and cost savings realized to get to a distributed form of consensus. The inconspicuousness of the HW is a huge benefit as well. What do you think? The context here was malware would add that feature, and thus provide covert half-duplex exfiltration channel where UART chip bit bangs via Rx-pin. If you have a look through this document,. So they will give you what you need to know at the basic level to understand what is going on with,.

It does not need to be spurious pulses, just edge jitter, or shifting sending individua characters in time to set up a covert channel. All of which would be ignored by a usual hardware UART or bit-bang software equivalent.

Prof Matt Blaze and some of his students wrote up a nice little paper[2]. Which further reduces the error channel bandwidth, however it is not enough to kill the reverse channel. It needs a lot of SW overhead, is slow, but possible. Not fit for productivity. A relatively simple detector would do, Clive Robinson? Maybe it should be added permanently to a TCB.

See point 3. However, from my point of view it is mandatory to insert an optocoupler into the serial data line and to separate the supply voltage between independently supplied devices. Of course the tremendous advantage is the increased distance of the optical separator, and it is both, fast and reliable. Related: I found an interesting historical post. The current Reed-Solomon erasure code seems to work well, and is tweakable from TFC settings, if user encounters lots of errors.

Once user issues the command to Transmitter Program, it resends the specified packets to Relay Program, that processes those packets first, followed by all the cached packets like , and finally it continues processing packets from Source Computer.

This sends Relay Program a command that resends the failed packet to Destination Computer. And again, Receiver Program is able to process packets in correct order. The main problem I see here is, resend command numbering might get complex or confuse user. Also caching ciphertexts to HDD might not be a good idea, and filling RAM might have different problems, especially if the session lasts very long. One solution for RAM filling, would be some command e.

When Relay and Receiver Programs receive the command, they will display the most recent packet number, e. This value reflects the fact that the Program knows it has received all packets If Destination Computer can receive malware, that malware can covertly switch the Wifi on for the duration of exfiltration.

I gave it a bit more thought and realized the retransmission command feature has a major covert channel. Say malware on Destination Computer reads first byte of a sensitive key: 0xFF. Malware on Networked Computer is now in possession of the first byte.

It only needs to repeat it 32 times over 32 sessions. Actual errors introduce noise but most likely not enough to protect the key. As for the network pump, long time ago I wrote about this relay-controlled flip-flop circuit that carries single bit ACK signal to Source Computer. The Network Pump works ideally in cases like this, where data flow is towards more less secure machine. So no feature where Receiver Program is able to determine plaintext information that Networked Computer sees, can be added.

My take is, some malware has to be already installed on RxM from the very beginning, because a properly working TFC read from buffer would receive data but not interpret any byte as machine instruction, let alone aggregate them to form a valid executable and then start it if the HW would allow that at all ….

Sorry for my persistence, but this point is to serious for me to dismiss, so I ask you for a deeper thought and answer. Second, although exploitation is basically possible with one single wire between the two devices because of short distance and the high frequency pulses being the information carrier , we always have two wires, signal and GND. For NH to RxM that means that NH as being the output, driving the signal line can watch the signal line in 0 and in 1 status in respect to GND and check for differences in noise information in both states.

This may give even more direct information regarding internals and operation of the TCB device. I was going to start on the TFC project but I am injured. I have to heal for a while. That computer can output keys at any point. The difference between vulnerability and backdoor is whether the weakness was placed into the system intentionally. The difference between infected and clean system is whether the system has malware that actively tries to steal keys. You can insert malware through vulnerability and a backdoor.

This malware can then perform arbitrary commands. While yes, you can sometimes spot vulnerabilities by reading specs specs e. Intel puts restrictions to create artificial differentiation between their chips, so that they can sell the same chip to different customers with different features for different price. Ah so this is why you think data diode is needed.

Common grounds etc can form a side channel that leaks information. It also guarantees serial interfaces e. Repeated spikes may damage chip protection diodes , the effect is accumulating. Finally, much later, this will cause malfunction and errors esp. What you likely want to say is that the single optocoupler prevents any possible backwards data flow, even if the dedicated pins their function on both devices, RxM and NH, would be maliciously remapped to reverse their data flow direction.

A single wire would not do that. It is the classical chicken and egg issue. Would you still ROT13 it or open the box? Are you infected or clean? But while a vulnerability could open some unexpected side channel attack, a backdoor requires a specially crafted function to be effective.

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The image above shows the pin configuration of the IC. The image below shows how the non-inverting buffers are present in the IC and to which pins. As mentioned earlier, the output is always equal to the input; therefore, input to A pin 3 will be equal to the output at G pin 2. The input and the output of the non-inverter IC are equal.

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